Sukanta Roy

Dr. Sukanta Roy

Head of Department, Mechanical Engineering

PhD (Fluid & Thermal Eng, IIT Guwahati), MTech (Thermal Eng), BEng (Mech Eng)

Erasmus Mundus PDF (LHEEA/ECN, France), PDF (IRPHE/AMU, France)

MASME, MIE CEng (I), FHEA (UK)

Senior Lecturer | Department of Mechanical Engineering | Faculty of Engineering and Science

Contact Details Telephone: +60 85 443939 Extn: 2505 | Location: Skylark (SK3)-454 | Email: sukanta.roy@curtin.edu.my

Research Profiles: Scopus, Google Scholar, Publons, ResearchGate, Personal Website

Research Interests: Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Hydro-kinetic Turbines, Turbo-machinery, Renewable Energy, Heat  Transfer Applications

 

Background

Dr. Sukanta Roy is presently working as the Head of Department, Mechanical Engineering of Curtin University, Malaysia Campus since March 2019. He is a Fellow of Advance Higher Education (HEA), UK and award winner of Citations for Outstanding Contributions to Student Learning 2019. He has joined Curtin University, Malaysia Campus as a Lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science in September 2017 and promoted to Senior Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering in December 2019. Prior to joining Curtin University, he worked as a Post-Doctoral Fellow in IRPHE, Aix Marseille University, France from November 2015 to June 2017. Dr. Roy has also worked as a Post-Doctoral Fellow in LHEEA, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France from September 2014 to October 2015 through Erasmus Mundus Post-Doctoral Fellowship (Asia to Europe) from European Commission. He has completed his PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India (2010-2014), Master of Technology in Thermal Engineering from National Institute of Technology, Silchar, India (2008-2010), Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering from National Institute of Technology, Agartala, India (2004-2007) and Diploma in Mechanical Engineering from WBSCTE, India (2001-2004). He is a Registered Level 1 HDR supervisor at Curtin University, Australia for Doctoral and Master Thesis. His research interests include Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Hydro-kinetic Turbines, Turbo-machinery, Renewable Energy, and Heat  Transfer Applications. 

 

Professional Experience

  • Head of Department, Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Curtin University Malaysia (03/2019 – Till date)
  • Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Curtin University Malaysia (12/2019 – Till date)
  • Lecturer, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Curtin University Malaysia (09/2017 – 11/2019)
  • Post-Doctoral Fellow, IRPHE, Aix Marseille University, France (11/2015 – 06/2017)
  • Post-Doctoral Fellow, LHEEA, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France (09/2014 – 10/2015)
  • Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tripura Institute of Technology, India (08/2007 – 08/2008)

  

Fellowships, Awards, Certifications, Achievements, and Appointments

  • Curtin Nominee in the 2020 Australian Awards for University Teaching (AAUT)
  • Curtin Citation Award for Outstanding Contributions to Student Learning 2019
  • Fellow, Advance Higher Education (HEA), UK (2019)
  • Golden Globe Tigers Award 2019 for Educational Leadership (2019)
  • Erasmus Mundus Post-Doctoral Fellowship from European Commission (09/2014 – 06/2015)
  • Young Scientist International Travel Support from Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India (11/2013)
  • PhD Scholarship from Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India (07/2010 – 07/2014)
  • Institute Topper of National Institute of Technology, Silchar, India with CPI 10/10 (2008 – 2010)
  • BE First class with Distinction from National Institute of Technology, Agartala, India (2007)

 

Professional Affiliation

  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), since 2011
  • The Institute of Engineers (India), since 2007
  • Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM), since 2019
  • Advance Higher Education (HEA), since 2019

 

Departmental/Institutional Responsibilities

  • Head of Department, Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science,  Curtin University Malaysia (March 2019 – Till date) 

  • Chairperson, Student Staff Consultative Committee (SSCC) for Mechanical Engineering (March 2019 – Till date) 

  • Chairperson, Industry Advisory Panel, Mechanical Engineering (March 2019 – Till date) 

  • Program Coordinator, Engineering First Year, Faculty of Engineering and Science,  Curtin University Malaysia (Jan 2019 – March 2019)

  • Faculty_In charge, Website & IT Committee (Mechanical Engineering), Curtin University Malaysia (Jan 2018 – Till date)

  • Member, Accreditation Committee (Mechanical Engineering), Curtin University Malaysia (Jan 2018 – Till date)

  • Member, Marketing Committee, Curtin University Malaysia (Jan 2018 – Dec 2019)

  • Editor, 2nd International Conference on Materials Technology and Energy (ICMTE 2019), November 06-08, 2019, Curtin University Malaysia.

  • IonCUDOS OBE Coordinator, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University Malaysia (Jan 2018 – Jun 2019)

  • Member, Industrial Training and External Relations Committee, Curtin University Malaysia (Jan 2018 – March 2019)

  • Reviewer, 2nd OCPC International Conference 2018, November 26-28, Curtin University Malaysia.

  • Reviewer, 11th CUTSE International Conference 2018, November 26-28, Curtin University Malaysia.

  • Session Chair (Mechanical Engineering Track) & Reviewer, 1st OCPC International Conference 2017, December 10-12, Curtin University Malaysia.

 

Organizing Conference/Short term Courses/Workshops

  • Convener, One week Short-term Staff Training Program on “Recent Trends in Energy Conversion Technologies” July 13-19, 2020, Curtin University Malaysia.

  • Organizing Secretary, 2nd International Conference on Materials Technology and Energy (ICMTE 2019), November 06-08, 2019, Curtin University Malaysia.

  • Organizing Committee Member, 2nd OCPC International Conference 2018, November 26-28, Curtin University Malaysia.

  • Organizing Mentor, Three days Training workshop on “SolidWorks” on behalf of IMechE (UK) student chapter in Curtin University, Malaysia from September 08, 2018.

  • Organizing Mentor, Three days Training workshop on “ANSYS Fluent” on behalf of IMechE (UK)  student chapter in Curtin University, Malaysia from October 06, 2018.

  • Organizing Committee Member, 1st OCPC International Conference 2017, December 10-12, Curtin University Malaysia.

 

Additional Professional Activities

  • Reviewer, Energy (Elsevier), IF: 5.537
  • Reviewer, Applied Energy (Elsevier), IF: 7.182 
  • Reviewer, Energy Conversion and Management (Elsevier), IF: 5.589
  • Reviewer, Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics (Elsevier), IF:2.689 
  • Reviewer, International Journal of Energy Research (Wiley), IF: 2.598 
  • Reviewer, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy (AIP), IF:1.337
  • Reviewer, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (ASME), IF: 1.190
  • Reviewer, Energies (MDPI), IF: 2.676
  • Reviewer, Water (MDPI), IF: 1.832  
  • Reviewer, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics (Inderscience), IF: 0.329
  • Reviewer, Geological Society of America Bulletin (GeoScienceWorld), IF: 4.212
  • Reviewer, Renewable Energy Focus (Elsevier)
  • Reviewer, International Energy Journal (AIT)
  • Reviewer, Designs (MDPI)
  • Reviewer, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments (Elsevier) 

 

Keynote/Invited Speaker

  1. Invited Speaker on “Design of offshore vertical axis wind turbine for AEROPITCH wind tunnel experiments,” at International Conference on Floating Offshore Wind turbine (FOWT 2017), March 15 – 16, 2017, Marseille, France.

  2. Keynote Speaker on “Computational Analysis on the Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for Cooling Tower Energy Recovery Applications,” International Conference on Thermofluids (KIIT Thermo 2020), January 23 – 24,  2020, Bhubaneswar, India. 

  3. Invited Lecture on “Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: Past, Present and Future,” VIT University, January 27, 2020, Vellore, India. 

  4. Invited Lecture on “Application of Wind Turbines for Exhaust-air Energy Extraction in the Cooling Tower Applications,” VIT University, January 27, 2020, Vellore, India. 

  5. Invited Talk on “Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Analysis of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines,” Half Day Faculty Development Program, VIT University, January 28, 2020, Vellore, India. 

  6. Invited Talk on “Small and Medium Scale Wind Turbines for Renewable Energy Generation,” Energy Institute, Bangalore, RGIPT, January 30, 2020, Bangalore, India. 

  7. Expert Keynote Lecture on “Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: An Alternative Solution for Renewable Energy Generation,”  ICSET-2020 Conference, organised by  VIT University, May 11, 2020, Vellore, India. 

  8. Expert Speaker on “Application for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines in Energy Generation through Numerical Simulations and Experiments,” Webinar (SAGE Talks), organised by SAGE University, May 21, 2020, Indore, India. 

  9. Resource Person on “Wind Energy,” One week Short Term Training Program on ‘Renewable Energy and Utilization’, Organised by Sandip Institute of Engineering and Management, May 26-30, 2020, Nashik, India.

  10. Expert Lecture on “Wind Turbines for Sustainable Energy Applications,” Webinar on “Sustainable Energy and Environmental Practices” (under TEQIP III), organised by National Institute of Technology Silchar, June 05-06, 2020, Silchar, India.

  11. Speaker on “Application of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for Alternative Energy Generation,” One week Short-term Staff Training Programme on “Recent Trends in Energy Conversion Technologies,” organised by Curtin University Malaysia, July 13-19, 2020, Miri, Malaysia.

  12. Resource Person on “Recent Advances in Wind Turbines for Sustainable and Renewable Energy Generation,” 5 day Webinar series on “Research Initiatives and Current Developments in Renewable Energy Sources” (under TEQIP III), organised by Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Management and Technology (GIMT) Guwahati, August 09-13, 2020, Guwahati, India.

 

Subjects Taught

  • Fundamentals of Thermodynamics
  • Heat Transfer
  • Introduction to Renewable Energy
  • Fundamentals of Strength of Materials
  • Engineering Graphics
  • Engineering Foundations: Design and Processes

 

Research Supervision

  • 2 PhD (Ongoing)
  • 1 MPhil (Completed), 2 MPhil (Ongoing)
  • 11 UG (Completed),  9 UG (Ongoing)

 

Research and Collaboration Opportunities: 

  • Design optimization and flow physics modelling of exhaust-air energy extractors for cooling tower applications
  • Aerodynamic and flow physics analysis of micro wind turbines for off-grid rural applications
  • Wake momentum deficit and enhancement of aerodynamic performance through multi turbine interaction
  • Performance enhancement of airfoils through surface roughness and trailing flaps
  • Experimental study and flow physics modelling of heat transfer  passive control techniques
  • Design, fabrication and characterization of sub-sonic wind tunnels
  • Design, performance study and flow Physics modelling of micro hydro-kinetic turbines 
  • Any new research proposals within the scopes of Fluid Dynamics/Heat Transfer/Renewable Energy

 

Research Grants/Consultancy Projects/Teaching & Learning  Grants

1. Flow Physics Modelling and Design Optimization of an Exhaust-air Energy Extractor in the Cooling Tower Applications; FRGS Research Grant 2018, Total Amount: RM 100,000.00; Funded by Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE), Govt. of Malaysia. Role: Principal Investigator

2. First Year Students’ Active Learning Experiences through Engagement with Indigenous Community-based Projects; Curtin Malaysia Teaching Innovation Project ( CMTIP) Grant 2019, Total Amount: RM 2,000.00; Funded by Curtin University Malaysia. Role: Principal Investigator

3. Inspiring and motivating university first year students through interactive and personalised learning experiences, real life exposure and blended pedagogical approach. 2019 Curtin Excellence and Innovation in Teaching Award. Total Amount: AUD 2,000.00; Funded by Curtin University Australia. Role: Principal Investigator

 

Publications

Journals

  1. S. Roy, R. Das, and U.K. Saha, 2018, An  Inverse method for optimization of geometric parameters of a Savonious-style wind turbine. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol 155, pp. 116–127 (Elsevier).  doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2017.10.088; Impact factor: 7.181 

  2. A. Ducoin, M.S. Shadloo and S. Roy2017, Direct numerical simulation of flow instabilities over Savonius style wind turbine blades. Renewable Energy, Vol 105,pp. 374 –385 (Elsevier). doi:10.1016/j.renene.2016.12.072; Impact factor: 5.439

  3. S. Roy and A. Ducoin, 2016, Unsteady analysis on the instantaneous forces and moment arms acting on a novel Savonius-style wind turbine. Energy Conversion and Management,Vol 121,pp. 281–296 (Elsevier). doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2016.05.044; Impact factor: 7.181 

  4. S. Roy and U.K. Saha, 2015, Wind tunnel experiments of a newly developed two-bladed Savonius-style wind turbine. Applied Energy, Vol 137, pp. 117–125 (Elsevier). doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.10.022; Impact factor: 8.426

  5. S. Roy and U.K. Saha, 2014, An adapted blockage factor correlation approach in wind tunnel experiments of a Savonius-style wind turbine. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol 86, pp. 418–427 (Elsevier). doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2014.05.039;Impact factor: 7.181

  6. S. Roy and U.K. Saha, 2013, Review on the numerical investigations into the design and development of Savonius wind rotors. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol 24, pp. 73–83 (Elsevier). doi:10.1016/j.rser.2013.03.060; Impact factor: 10.556

  7. S. Roy and U.K. Saha, 2013, Computational study to assess the influence of overlap ratio on static torque characteristics of a vertical axis wind turbine. Procedia Engineering, Vol 51, pp. 694–702 (Elsevier). doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2013.01.099

  8. S. Roy and U.K. Saha, 2013, Review of experimental investigations into the design, performance and optimization of the Savonius rotor. Proc.IMechE Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, Vol 227, pp. 528–542 (Sage). doi:10.1177/0957650913480992; Impact factor: 1.694

 

Copyrights or Patents

  1. S.Roy, Y.K. San, J. Malang, and K. McKee, 2019, Technical Issues Faced by the Iban Indigenous Community of Kampung Sungai Sebatu and Project Challenges. Malaysian Intellectual Property Corporation, Govt. of Malaysia, Copyright Filling No: LY2019008118, ID No. C011_2019_CUM.

 

Conference Proceedings

  1. Y.K. San, G. Chiew, V.C.C. Lee, and S. Roy, 2018, Analysis on rolling damping of a conventional boat fitted with T-shaped bilge keels. International Conference on Aeronautical, Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering (AAME 2018), Jun 6-8, Malaysia. MATEC Web Conf.: Mechanical Design Manufacturing and Automation, Volume 202, pp. 02007 (1–5). doi:10.1051/matecconf/201820202007

  2. S. Roy, R. Das, and U.K. Saha, 2017, Identification of geographical locations to operate Savonious wind turbine rotor for meeting a desired performance. ASME 2017 Gas Turbine India Conference (ASME-GTINDIA 2017), December 78, Bangalore, India. ASME Proceedings: Renewable Energy (Solar, Wind), pp. V002T06A003,   doi:10.1115/GTINDIA2017-4566

  3. S. Roy, H. Branger, C. Luneau, D. Bourras, and B. Paillard, 2017, Design of an offshore three-bladed vertical axis wind turbine for wind tunnel experiments, ASME 36th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE2017), June 25–30, Trondheim, Norway. ASME Proceedings: Ocean Renewable Energy, pp. V010T09A046, doi:10.1115/OMAE2017-61512

  4. S. Roy, H. Branger, C. Luneau and B. Paillard, 2016, Design of blade profile for offshore vertical axis wind turbines using Double Multiple Stream Tube model with tip loss correction, EUROMECH Colloquium on Scientific and Technological Challenges in Offshore Vertical Axis Wind Turbines, September 7–9, Delft, The Netherlands, pp. 69–70.

  5. A. Ducoin, S. Roy and M.S. Shadloo, 2016, Direct Numerical Simulation of nonlinear secondary instabilities on the pressure side of a Savonius-style wind turbine. ASME 2016 HT/FE/ICNMM, Heat Transfer, Fluids Engineering and Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels Conferences (ASME-FEDSM 2016),July 10–14, Washington, USA. ASME Proceedings: 11th Symposium on DNS, LES and Hybrid RANS/LES Methods, pp. V01AT08A004, doi:10.1115/FEDSM2016-7714

  6. S. Roy, A. Ducoin and U.K. Saha, 2015, Flow physics around a Savonius-style wind turbine considering the influence of shaft. ASME-ATI-UIT 2015 Conference on Thermal Energy Systems: Production, Storage, Utilization and the Environment (ASME-ATI-UIT 2015), May 17–20, Napoli, Italy.

  7. S. Roy, P. Mukherjee and U.K. Saha, 2014, Aerodynamic performance evaluation of a novel Savonius-style wind turbine under an oriented jet. ASME 2014 Gas Turbine India Conference (ASME-GTINDIA 2014), December 15–17, New Delhi, India. ASME Proceedings:GT Cycle Innovations, Renewable Applications, pp. V001T08A001, doi:10.1115/GTINDIA2014-8152

  8. A. Banerjee, S. Roy, P. Mukherjee and U.K. Saha, 2014, Unsteady flow analysis around an elliptic-bladed Savonius-style wind turbine. ASME 2014 Gas Turbine India Conference (ASME-GTINDIA 2014), December 15–17, New Delhi, India. ASME ProceedingsUnsteady and Transitional Flows in Turbomachinery, pp. V001T05A001, doi:10.1115/GTINDIA2014-8141

  9. S. Roy and U.K. Saha, 2014, Performance analysis of Savonius-style wind turbines under concentrated and oriented jets. ASME Turbo Expo 2014 Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition (ASME TURBO EXPO 2014), June 16–20, Dusseldorf, Germany. ASME Proceedings: Wind Energy, pp. V03BT46A027, doi:10.1115/GT2014-26518

  10. S. Roy and U.K. Saha, 2013, Investigations on the effect of aspect ratios into the performance of Savonius rotors. ASME 2013 Gas Turbine India Conference (ASME-GTINDIA 2013), December 5–6, Bangalore, India. ASME Proceedings: Renewable Energy, pp. V001T07A002, doi:10.1115/GTINDIA2013-3729

  11. S. Roy and U.K. Saha, 2013, Numerical investigation to assess an optimal blade profile for the drag based vertical axis wind turbine. ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (ASME-IMECE 2013), November 15–21, San Diego, USA. ASME Proceedings: Energy,pp. V06AT07A084, doi:10.1115/IMECE2013-64001

  12. S. Roy and U.K. Saha, 2012, Comparative analysis of turbulence models for flow simulation around a vertical axis wind turbine. Indo-Danish International Conference on Wind Energy: Materials, Engineering, and Policies (WEMEP 2012), November 22–23, Hyderabad, India.

  13. S. Roy, A. Biswas and R. Gupta, 2010, CFD analysis of an airfoil shaped three bladed H-Darrieus rotor made from fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP). 37th National & 4th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP2010), December 16–18, Chennai, India.

 

Book/ Book Chapters

  1. S. Roy, 2018, “Aerodynamic Performance Evaluation of a Novel Savonius-Style Wind Turbine Through Unsteady Simulations and Wind Tunnel Experiments”, Lap Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG, Germany, ISBN: 9783659455582

  2. S. Roy and U.K. Saha, 2014, “Design of Savonius-Style Wind Turbines”, in “Small-Scale Wind Power – Design, Analysis, and Environmental Impacts”, Book Chapter-4,pp. 65–91, Momentum Press, New York, USA. ISBN: 9781606504840

 

Supervision of Students’ Projects

PhD (Reverse order)

2. Gavin Scott Manggai Van Straten, Design and Optimization of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Arm for Offshore Applications. (Ongoing)

1. Rajesh Babu Chunchula, CFD Analysis of an economizer for Heat Transfer Enhancement by using Compound Techniques. (Ongoing)

 

MPhil by Research (Reverse order)

3. Reuben Brandon Lee Huan Chung, Flow Physics Modelling and Design Optimization of an Exhaust-air Energy Extractor in the Cooling Tower Applications. (Ongoing)

2. Pavitri Apparavoo, Design and Optimization of the Energy extractor for Solar Chimney Power Plant. (Ongoing)

1. Wilson Phua Yuen Zheng, Performance Enhancement of Inclined Solar Chimney Power Plant Using Underneath Air-Vents and Thermal Storage Medium. (Completed)

 

UG (Reverse order)

20. Kuscera Lee Idang Youngblood, The performance analysis of multi rotating wind turbines for exhaust air energy recovery through CFD and experiments. (Ongoing)

19. Yuh Chyi Leong, Computational Design and analysis of helical turbines for micro-hydro power generation. (Ongoing)

18. Kai Xin Ng, Heat transfer Augmentation in a cylindrical flow channel using serrated fins. (Ongoing)

17. Danesh Mailvaganam, Three dimensional CFD analysis of straight-bladed vertical axis turbines for hydropower generation. (Ongoing)

16. Arslan Talib, Design and Fabrication of an Exhaust-Air Energy Extractor for Cooling Tower Applications. (Ongoing)

15.  Samuel Soo Jun Yiu, Design and Analysis of Impeller of a  Double Suction Centrifugal Pump. (Ongoing)

14. Mohammad Khuzairy Bin Mohammad Alwi, Experimental study on the Heat Transfer Enhancement using Serrated fins. (Ongoing)

13. Wong Seik Tai, Design, 3D Printing and Fabrication of Wind Turbine Blades for Cooling Tower Applications. (Ongoing)

12. Jeff Bassey Okoi, Numerical Study on varying Overlap Ratio of Elliptic Savonious Rotors. (Ongoing)

11. Thanesh Manickam, The Effect of Surface Roughness and Trailing Flaps on S809 and NACA 4412 airfoils. (Completed 2019)

10. Enderaaj Singh, Flow Physics Modelling of an Exhaust-air Energy Extractor for Cooling Tower Applications. (Completed 2019)

9. Mohd Anthony Armand Zain Bin, Performance Analysis of Modified Savonious Hydro-kinetic Turbines under Augmented Flow for Rural Applications. (Completed 2019)

8. Terrence Lim Chun Fei, Enhancement of Heat Transfer in the Cylindrical Pipe Flow using Hexagonal Perforated Twisted Tapes. (Completed 2019)

7. Sean Chai Wei Jha, Design of a Sub-Sonic Wind Tunnel in Curtin University, Malaysia. (Completed 2019)

6. Toh Chee Yong, Minimization of Wake Momentum Deficit and Enhancement of Aerodynamic Performance through Multi Wind Turbine Interaction. (Completed 2019)

5. Hwong Nai Zeng, Aerodynamic Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbines Using Non-Linear Lifting Line Theory. (Completed 2019)

4. Christopher Chia Xiao Hui, Numerical Simulation of Contraction Cone Design for Wind Tunnel using ANSYS Fluent Software. (Completed 2018)

3. Chin Bei Yi, Aerodynamic Analysis of Off-grid Wind Turbines to Optimize the Turbine Solidity Ratio. (Completed 2018)

2. Lim Shen Xian, Performance Study of Cross-Flow Type Micro Hydro-kinetic Turbines for Rural Applications. (Completed 2018)

1. Yong Sheau Chin, Enhancement of Nusselt Convection in Laminar and Turbulent Flow inside a Horizontal Cylinder using Hexagonal Perforated Tubes. (Completed 2018) 

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